Presbyters Uniwersytet Warszawski
ER 517
Augustine, bishop of Hippo (North Africa), writes about how the clerics should behave in face of the Vandal invasion. Augustine, Letter 228, AD 429.
Letter 228
The letter does not mention explicitly presbyters, but speaks about the bishops and clergy in general. Augustine does not rule out the possibility of leaving the cities endangered by the advancing Vandals, however, he points out the necessity of providing the people with the pastoral services of the priests, especially baptism and reconciliation.
(ed. Goldbacher 1911: 484-496; summarized by S. Adamiak)


The letter is included in the "Life of Augustine" by Possidius.

Place of event:

  • Latin North Africa
  • Hippo Regius

About the source:

Author: Augustine of Hippo
Title: Letters, Epistulae
Origin: Hippo Regius (Latin North Africa)
Denomination: Catholic/Nicene/Chalcedonian
The letters of Augustine of Hippo cover a wide range of topics: Holy Scripture, dogma and liturgy, philosophy, religious practice and everyday life. They range from full-scale theological treatises to small notes asking someone for a favour. The preserved corpus includes 308 letters, 252 written by Augustine, 49 that others sent to him and seven exchanged between third parties. 29 letters have been discovered only in the 20th century and edited in 1981 by Johannes Divjak; they are distinguished by the asterisk (*) after their number.
The preserved letters of Augustine extend over the period from his stay at Cassiciacum in 386 to his death in Hippo in 430.
A. Goldbacher ed., S. Augustini Hipponiensis Episcopi Epistulae, Pars 4, Ep. 185-270, Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum 57, Vienna-Leipzig 1911.
Saint Augustine, Letters 211–270, 1*–29*, trans. R. Teske, New York 2005.


Described by a title - Sacerdos/ἱερεύς
    Described by a title - Clericus
      Ritual activity - Baptism and instructing catechumens
        Ritual activity - Reconciliation/Administering penance
          Relation with - Barbarian
            Described by a title - Minister/λειτουργός/ὑπηρέτης
              Conflict - Violence
                Please quote this record referring to its author, database name, number, and, if possible, stable URL: S. Adamiak, Presbyters in the Late Antique West, ER517,