Presbyters Uniwersytet Warszawski
ER 485
Canon 73 of the Fourth Council of Toledo (Iberian Peninsula, AD 633) forbids from ordaining freedmen who are obliged to service for their patrons.
[Titulus in recensione Iuliana] LXXIII Vt quicumque libertatem a dominis suis ita percipiunt ut nullus in eis obsequium patronus retentet.
[Titulus in recensione Vulgata] LXXIII De discretione libertorum: qui ad ecclesiasticos honores peruenire possunt uel qui prohibeantur.
Canon 73
Quicumque libertatem a dominis suis ita percipiunt ut nullum sibimet in eis obsequium patronus retentet, isti si sine crimine sunt ad clericatus ordinem libere suscipiuntur, quia directa manumissione absoluti noscuntur. Qui uero retento obsequio manumissi sunt, pro eo quod adhuc patroni seruitute tenentur obnoxii, nullatenus sunt ad ecclesiasticum ordinem promouendi, ne, quando uoluerint eorum domini, fiant ex clericis serui.
(eds. Martinez Diez, Rodriguez 1992: 170, 177, 246)
[Title in the recension Iuliana] LXXIII On those who are freed by their masters in such a way that the patrons do not demand services from them.
[Title in the recension Vulgata] LXXIII On the distinction between freedmen: who can be promoted to the ecclesiastical honours and who cannot.
Canon 73
Those who are freed by their masters in such a way that the patrons do not demand services from them, if they are without blame, can freely enter to the clerical order, because they are known to be absolved by a direct manumission. Those, however, who are manumitted with an obligation to service, because they are still subjected to the service of their master, can by no means be promoted to the ecclesiastical order lest clerics should turn into slaves whenever their patrons request it.
(trans. M. Szada)

Place of event:

  • Iberian Peninsula
  • Toledo

About the source:

Title: Fourth Council of Toledo (633), IV Council of Toledo, IV Concilium Toletanum, IIII Concilium Toletanum, Concilium Toletanum quartum a. 633
Origin: Toledo (Iberian Peninsula)
Denomination: Catholic/Nicene/Chalcedonian
The Fourth Council of Toledo was a council of the whole Visigothic church (86 bishops were present) gathered by King Sisenand (631-636)  in 633 and held under the presidency of Isidore of Seville. It is sometimes claimed on stylistic grounds that Isidore was an author of the decrees (Collins 2004: 79).
The acts of the Fourth Council of Toledo are transmitted in the 7th-century canonical collection from Spain, the so-called Hispana. Its authorship has been attributed to the Isidore of Seville (it is still accepted by Martinez Diez 1966; other scholars reject this attribution: Munier 1966; Gaudemet 1967: 122-124; Schaferdiek 1967: 144-148; Landau 1968: 406-418). This collection has several recensions: a primitive one, the so-called Isidoriana, lost today; the Juliana recension edited after 681 and attributed to the Julian of Toledo, that adds to the previous recension the acts and canons of the councils from the Fifth Council of Toledo do the Twelfth (in 681); the Vulgata recension edited between 694 and 702 that adds the acts and canons of the councils from the the Thirteenth Council of Toledo up to the Seventeenth held in 694, this recension was the most widespread during the Middle Ages (more bibliography see Kéry 1999: 61-67). The two recensions Iuliana and Vulgata give different titles to the canons of the Fourth Council of Toledo (Martinez Diez 1992: 17-20).
G. Martínez Díez, F. Rodríguez eds., La colección canónica Hispana, Monumenta Hispaniae sacra. Serie canónica 5, Madrid 1992.
R. Collins, Visigothic Spain, 409-711, Oxford, OX, UK; Malden, MA, USA 2004.
J. Gaudemet, review of: "G. Martinez Diez, La coleccion canonica Hispana 1", Revue historique de droit français et étranger 4e ser.  45 (1967), 122-124.
L. Kéry, Canonical collections of the early Middle Ages (ca. 400-1140): a bibliographical guide to the manuscripts and literature, Washington, D.C 1999.
P. Landau, review of: "G. Martinez Diez, La coleccion canonica Hispana 1", Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte Kanonistische Abteilung 54 (1968), 406-414.
G. Martínez Díez, La Colección canónica Hispana, vol. 1 Estudio, Madrid 1966.
C. Munier, "Saint Isidore de Séville est-il l’auteur de I’Hispana chronologique?", Sacris Erudiri 17 (1966), 230-241.
K. Schäferdiek, review of: "G. Martinez Diez, La coleccion canonica Hispana 1", Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 78 (1967), 144-148.
M. Sotomayor, "Las relaciones iglesia urbana-iglesia rural en los concilios hispano-romanos y visigodos", Sacralidad y Arqueologia, Antig. Crist. (Murcia) 21 (2004), 525-539.


Social origin or status - Slaves
    Described by a title - Clericus
      Impediments or requisits for the office - Social/Economic/Legal status
          Economic status and activity - Taxes and services
            Private law - Ecclesiastical
              Please quote this record referring to its author, database name, number, and, if possible, stable URL: M. Szada, Presbyters in the Late Antique West, ER485,