Presbyters Uniwersytet Warszawski
ER 447
Canon 40 of the Fourth Council of Toledo (Iberian Peninsula, AD 633) forbids bishops, presbyters, and deacons to use two stoles.
[Titulus in recensione Iuliana] XL Vt non licere episcopo nec presbytero oraria duo uti; quanto magis diacono qui minister eorum est.
[Titulus in recensione Vulgata] XL De uno orario diaconibus utendo, nec ornato, sed puro.
Canon 40
Oraria duo nec episcopo quidem licere nec presbytero uti; quanto magis diacono, qui minister eorum est? Vnum igitur orarium oportet Leuitam gestare in sinistrum umerum propter quod orat, id est praedicat; dexteram autem partem oportet habere liberam ut expeditus ad ministerium sacerdotale discurrat. Caueant igitur amodo Leuitae geminum uti orarium, sed unum tantum et purum nec ullis coloribus aut auro ornatum.  
(eds. Martinez Diez, Rodriguez 1992: 166, 174, 225-226)
[Title in the recension Iuliana] XL That no bishop or presbyter, and how much more no deacon who is their servant uses two stoles.
[Title in the recension Vulgata] XL That deacons shall use only one stole, and not ornate, but pure.
Canon 40
No presbyter and not even a bishop is allowed to use two stoles. How much more a deacon who is their servant? A deacon shall wear one stole on his left shoulder, because he prays, that is preaches. His right shoulder shall be free as to be ready to make haste to the priestly service. Deacons shall then avoid using double stoles, but only one, pure, not colourful or decorated with gold.
(trans. M. Szada)

Place of event:

  • Iberian Peninsula
  • Toledo

About the source:

Title: Fourth Council of Toledo (633), IV Council of Toledo, IV Concilium Toletanum, IIII Concilium Toletanum, Concilium Toletanum quartum a. 633
Origin: Toledo (Iberian Peninsula)
Denomination: Catholic/Nicene/Chalcedonian
The Fourth Council of Toledo was a council of the whole Visigothic church (86 bishops were present) gathered by King Sisenand (631-636)  in 633 and held under the presidency of Isidore of Seville. It is sometimes claimed on stylistic grounds that Isidore was an author of the decrees (Collins 2004: 79).
The acts of the Fourth Council of Toledo are transmitted in the 7th-century canonical collection from Spain, the so-called Hispana. Its authorship has been attributed to the Isidore of Seville (it is still accepted by Martinez Diez 1966; other scholars reject this attribution: Munier 1966; Gaudemet 1967: 122-124; Schaferdiek 1967: 144-148; Landau 1968: 406-418). This collection has several recensions: a primitive one, the so-called Isidoriana, lost today; the Juliana recension edited after 681 and attributed to the Julian of Toledo, that adds to the previous recension the acts and canons of the councils from the Fifth Council of Toledo do the Twelfth (in 681); the Vulgata recension edited between 694 and 702 that adds the acts and canons of the councils from the the Thirteenth Council of Toledo up to the Seventeenth held in 694, this recension was the most widespread during the Middle Ages (more bibliography see Kéry 1999: 61-67). The two recensions Iuliana and Vulgata give different titles to the canons of the Fourth Council of Toledo (Martinez Diez 1992: 17-20).
G. Martínez Díez, F. Rodríguez eds., La colección canónica Hispana, Monumenta Hispaniae sacra. Serie canónica 5, Madrid 1992.
R. Collins, Visigothic Spain, 409-711, Oxford, OX, UK; Malden, MA, USA 2004.
J. Gaudemet, review of: "G. Martinez Diez, La coleccion canonica Hispana 1", Revue historique de droit français et étranger 4e ser.  45 (1967), 122-124.
L. Kéry, Canonical collections of the early Middle Ages (ca. 400-1140): a bibliographical guide to the manuscripts and literature, Washington, D.C 1999.
P. Landau, review of: "G. Martinez Diez, La coleccion canonica Hispana 1", Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte Kanonistische Abteilung 54 (1968), 406-414.
G. Martínez Díez, La Colección canónica Hispana, vol. 1 Estudio, Madrid 1966.
C. Munier, "Saint Isidore de Séville est-il l’auteur de I’Hispana chronologique?", Sacris Erudiri 17 (1966), 230-241.
K. Schaferdiek, review of: "G. Martinez Diez, La coleccion canonica Hispana 1", Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 78 (1967), 144-148.
M. Sotomayor, "Las relaciones iglesia urbana-iglesia rural en los concilios hispano-romanos y visigodos", Sacralidad y Arqueologia, Antig. Crist. (Murcia) 21 (2004), 525-539.


Described by a title - Presbyter/πρεσβύτερος
    Usurping presbyterial power
      Ritual activity - Liturgical vestments
        Relation with - Deacon
          Please quote this record referring to its author, database name, number, and, if possible, stable URL: M. Szada, Presbyters in the Late Antique West, ER447,