Presbyters Uniwersytet Warszawski
ER 1454
The presbyter Pancratius and deacon Hilarius, sent by Pope Liberius to the council convoked by the Emperor Constantius in Milan, are flogged for their defence of Atahanasius and the Nicene Creed; AD 355. Account of Athanasius, "The History of Arians", AD 357.
41. [...] Λιβερίου γὰρ ἀποστείλαντος πρὸς βασιλέα Εὐτρόπιον πρεςβύτερον καὶ διάκονον Ἱλάριον μετὰ γραμμάτων, ὅτε καὶ οἱ περὶ Λουκίφερον ὡμολόγουν, τὸν μὲν πρεσβύτερον εὐθὺς ἐξώρισαν, τὸν δὲ διάκονον Ἱλάριον γυμνώσαντες καὶ τὰ νῶτα μαστίξαντες ἐξώρισαν ἐπιφωνοῦντες· ‘διὰ τί μὴ ἀντέστης Λιβερίῳ, ἀλλὰ καὶ παρ' αὐτοῦ κεκόμικας γράμματα’; [...]
(ed. Opitz 1940: 206)
41. [...] When Liberius sent Eutropius, a Presbyter, and Hilarius, a Deacon, with letters to the Emperor, at the time that Lucifer and his fellows made their confession, they banished the Presbyter on the spot, and after stripping Hilarius the Deacon and scourging him on the back, they banished him too, clamouring at him, "Why did you not resist Liberius instead of being the bearer of letters from him?" [...]
(trans. M. Atkinson, A. Robertson,

Place of event:

  • Italy north of Rome with Corsica and Sardinia
  • Milan

About the source:

Author: Athanasius
Title: History of Arians, Historia Arianorum
Origin: Monasteries in Egypt (East)
Denomination: Catholic/Nicene/Chalcedonian
"The History of Arians" is a chronological description of the struggle of Athanasius with his opponents in AD 335357. Athanasius wrote it during his exile to the Egyptian desert, probably in AD 357.
H.G. Opitz ed., Athanasius Werke, II, 1, Berlin 1940, 183-230.
P. Gemeinhardt ed., Athanasius Handbuch, Tuebingen 2011.


Travel and change of residence
Described by a title - Presbyter/πρεσβύτερος
Ecclesiastical administration - Participation in councils and ecclesiastical courts
Ecclesiastical administration - Ecclesiastical envoy
Relation with - Deacon
Relation with - Monarch and royal/imperial family
Conflict - Violence
Please quote this record referring to its author, database name, number, and, if possible, stable URL: S. Adamiak, Presbyters in the Late Antique West, ER1454,