Presbyters Uniwersytet Warszawski
ID
ER 1026
Signatures of the presbyters and "fathers" (abbates) present at the Fourteenth Council of Toledo (Iberian Peninsula, AD 684).
The signatures of the bishops present at the council. There follows:
 
Item abbates.
 
[18] Asfalius Dei nutu abba haec gesta synodica a nobis definita subscripsi.
[19] Felix arcipresbyter similiter subscripsi.
[20] Gerontius abba similiter subscripsi.
[21] Gabriel abba similiter subscripsi.
[22] Castorius abba similiter subscripsi.
[23] Sisebertus abba similiter subscripsi.
 
Item uicarii episcoporum.
 
[24] Vitalianus presbyter agens uicem domini mei Cipriani episcopi ecclesiae Tarraconensis haec gesta synodica a nobis definita subscripsi.
[25] Argebado abba agens uicem domini mei Cipriani episcopi ecclesiae Tarraconensis similiter subscripsi.
[26] Iohannes abba agens uicem domini mei Suniefredi episcopi Narbonensis ecclesiae similiter subscripsi.
[27] Valdemarus diaconus agens uicem domini mei Suniefredi episcopi Narbonensis ecclesiae similiter subscripsi.
[28] Maximus abba agens uicem domini mei Stephani episcopi Emeretensis ecclesiae similiter subscripsi.
[29] Boniba abba agens uicem domini mei Stephani episcopi Emeretensis ecclesiae similiter subscripsi.
[30] Reccisindus abba agens uicem domini mei Liubani episcopi bracarensis ecclesiae similiter subscripsi.
[31] Gaudentius abba agens uicem domini mei Floresindi episcopi Spalensis ecclesiae similiter subscripsi.
[32] Grauidius diaconus agens uicem domini mei Concordi episcopi Palentinae ecclesiae similiter subscripsi.
[33] Iohannes diaconus cognomento Inuolatus agens uicem domini mei Sarmatani episcopi Valentinae ecclesiae similiter subscripsi.
 
(eds. Martínez Díez, Rodríguez 2002: 288-290)
 
The signatures of the bishops present at the council. There follows:
 
Then the abbots:
 
[18] I, Asfalius, abbot by the will of God sign the counciliar proceedings that we have decreed.
[19] I, Felix, archpresbyter, sign as well.
[20] I, Gerontius, abbot sign as well.
[21] I, Gabriel, abbot sign as well.
[22] I, Castorius, abbot, sign as well.
[23] I, Sisebertus abbot, sign as well.
 
Then the deputies of the bishops.
 
[24] I, Vitalianus, presbyter acting on behalf of my Lord Cyprian, bishop of the Church in Tarragona sign the counciliar proceedings that we have decreed.
[25] I, Argebadus, abba acting on behalf of my Lord Cyprian, bishop of the Church in Tarragona, sign as well.
[26] I, John, abba acting on behalf of my Lord Suniefredus, bishop of the Church in Narbonne, sign as well.
[27] I, Valdemarus, deacon acting on behalf of my Lord Suniefredus, bishop of the Church in Narbonne, sign as well.
[28] I, Maximus, abba acting on behalf of my Lord Stephanus, bishop of the Church in Merida, sign as well.
[29] I, Boniba, abba acting on behalf of my Lord Stephanus, bishop of the Church in Merida, sign as well.
[30] I, Reccisindus, abba acting on behalf of my Lord Liuba, bishop of the Church in Braga, sign as well.
[31] I, Gaudentius, abba acting on behalf of my Lord Floresindus, bishop of the Church in Seville, sign as well.
[32] I, Gravidus, deacon acting on behalf of my Lord Concordus, bishop of Palentia, sign as well.
[33] I, John, deacon acting on behalf of my Lord Sarmatanus, bishop of Valencia, sign as well.
 
(trans. M. Szada)

Discussion:

I suppose that abbots in the section of the list following the signatures of the bishops are the superiors of the monastery (for comparison see the signatures of the Eleventh Council of Toledo in 675 in which abbots are identified by their monastery), but abbates in the section of the signatures of the deputies of the absent bishops are members of the diocesan clergy (see canon 11 of the council of Merida in 666 [817] that puts them between presbyters and deacons). We do not know whether they had a presbyterial ordination, but see canon 3 of the Eleventh Council of Toledo in 675 AD [857] that mentions abbates celebrating Divine Office and mass. It is possible that abbas was a title of a cleric in charge of a basilica (cf. the study of the "abbots of the basilicas" in the 6th-century Gaul by Pietri 1983). Bishko 1941 acknowledge the difference between abbots present at the council at their own and those being the representatives of the bishops. He assumes, however, that both these groups belonged to the monastic milieu; he proposes that bishops from distant dioceses were asking the abbots of the monasteries from Toledo and its close proximity to represent them at the council, but there is no decisive argument backing his claim. It is, however, accepted by Orlandis 1986. For other cases of abbates representing the absent bishops see [541], [810], [1027].
 
At the Fourteenth Council of Toledo for the first time some of the absent bishops (three out of seven) are represented by two persons - either an abba and a presbyter, an abba and a deacon, or two abbates.
 
 

Place of event:

Region
  • Iberian Peninsula
  • Gaul
City
  • Toledo
  • Tarragona
  • Merida
  • Braga
  • Seville
  • Narbonne

About the source:

Title: Concilium Toletanum XIV a. 684, Concilium Toletanum XIIII a. 684, Concilium XIV Toletanum a. 684, Concilium XIIII Toletanum, 14th Council of Toledo in 684 AD
Origin: Toledo (Iberian Peninsula)
Denomination: Catholic/Nicene/Chalcedonian
Shortly after the Thirteenth Council of Toledo in 683 the Spanish Church received letters of Pope Leo II urging it to accept the decisions of the Third Council in Constantinople in 680-681 that condemned monothelitism. In consequence the Fourteenth Council of Toledo gathered in 684 during the reign of King Ervig (680-687), but it was attended by only 16 bishops (Julian of Toledo presided over), all of the province of Carthaginensis. Therefore the Christological issues were raised again on the next council, the Fifteenth Council of Toledo in 688 (see Collins 2004: 105; Murphy 1951)
Edition:
G. Martínez Díez, F. Rodríguez eds., La colección canónica Hispana, Monumenta Hispaniae sacra. Serie canónica 6, Madrid 2002.
Bibliography:
C.J. Bishko, "Spanish abbots and the Visigothic Councils of Toledo”, [in :] Humanistic Studies in honor of John Calvin Metcalf, Charlottesville 1941, 139-150 (reprinted in: C.J. Bishko, Spanish and Portugese Monastic History 600-1300, Aldershot 1984).
R. Collins, Visigothic Spain, 409-711, Oxford 2004.
F.X. Murphy, "Julian of Toledo and the condemnation of Monothelitism in Spain / Francis X. Murphy”, [in :] Mélanges Joseph de Ghellinck, Gembloux 1951, 361-373.
J. Orlandis, "Abades y concilios en la Hispania visigotica", in Los Visigodos, historia y civilizacion. Actas de la Semana Internacional de Estudios Visigóticos (Madrid - Toledo - Alcala de Henares, 21-25 octubre de 1985), Antiguedad y Cristianismo. Monografias historicas sobre la antiguedad tardia III, Murcia 1986, 221-233
L. Pietri, "Les abbés de basilique dans la Gaule du VIe siècle”, Revue d’histoire de l’Église de France 69 (1983), 5-28.

Categories:

Travel and change of residence
Functions within the Church - Archpresbyter
Described by a title - Presbyter/πρεσβύτερος
Described by a title - Abba
Ecclesiastical administration - Participation in councils and ecclesiastical courts
Ecclesiastical administration - Ecclesiastical envoy
Relation with - Another presbyter
Relation with - Bishop/Monastic superior
Please quote this record referring to its author, database name, number, and, if possible, stable URL: M. Szada, Presbyters in the Late Antique West, ER1026, http://www.presbytersproject.ihuw.pl/index.php?id=6&SourceID=1026